Glossary of special terms and abbreviations in the protocols

Alija/Alia (Hebrew): Jewish immigration to Palestine (from 1948 to Israel)

Appell (German): camp roll call

Appellplatz (German): site of the camp roll call

Arbeitslager (German): work camp

Aussenkommando (German): work unit operating outside the camp

Bauführer (German): construction leader

Baukommando (German): construction work unit

Betár (Hebrew): Brit Trumpeldor (Trumpeldor Association), right-wing Zionist organisation

Blockführer (German): block leader, an SS man supervising a given block

Blocksperre (German): block curfew

Blockältester (German): camp prisoner functionary, block supervisor

Brezsinka (Polish-Hungarian): term used by Hungarian prisoners for Sector BIIg of Birkenau (Auschwitz II), the warehouse camp (Effektenlager), called Kanada in the camp jargon

Capo or Kapo (Italian-Geman): prisoner functionary supervising work units

Chalutz or halutz (Hebrew): member of a Zionist youth organisation

Dörgemüse (German): camp soup, made out of dried vegetables

Eretz, Eretz Yisrael (Hebrew): land of Israel, the Jewish land of origin

Esskommando (German): camp work unit transporting food

Familienlager (German): family camp

Fillér (Hungarian): change of the Hungarian currency pengő

FKL (German): Frauen Konzentrationslager, women's concentration camp

GPU (Russian): State Political Directorate, Soviet political police

Hitlerjugend (German): German Nazi youth organisation

Häftlingskrankenbau (German): camp hospital for prisoners

Jewish Agency (English): the diplomatic representation (quasi-government) of the Zionist movement

Joint (English): American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, American Jewish aid organisation

Kanada (German): camp jargon term for Sector BIIg of Birkenau (Auschwitz II), the warehouse camp (Effektenlager)

KEOKH (Hungarian): National Central Authority for Controlling Foreigners, Hungarian internal authority that supervised the foreigners arriving to the country legally or illegally

Keren Hayesod (Hebrew): Zionist fund to support the aliya[LINK aliya]

Kommando (German): work unit

Kommandoführer (German): leader of the work unit

Lagerführer (German): commander of a camp or camp section

Lagerführerin (German): female commander of a camp or camp section

Lagerstrasse (German): "street" in between camp sections or blocks

Levente (Hungarian): 1. military training of 12-21-year-old boys in Hungary in the interwar period 2. young boy taking part in military training

Mizrahi (Hebrew): religious Zionist organisation

MOKTÁR (Hungarian): Hungarian National Central Savings Bank

Musulman: term of camp jargon for a lethally exhausted and starved prisoner

Musz (Hungarian): abbreviation of the term "labour service man"

Neolog: the branch of Judaism in Hungary that was ready to somewhat modernise the tradition and adapt its customs to the majority society

NKVD (Russian): Internal Commissariat, Soviet state security authority

Organisation Todt (German): German paramilitary work organisation

Pengő (Hungarian): Hungarian currency between 1926 and 1946

Persona grata (Latin): person in favour

Rapportführer (German): SS man supervising the roll calls

Rapportführerin (German): female SS overseer supervising the roll calls

Revier (German): camp hospital

Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew): Jewish New Year

SA (German): Sturmabteilung (storm troops), paramilitary mass organisation of the German Nazi party

Sauna: camp bathhouse in Birkenau for those deportees declared to be fit for work during the selections

Schonung (German): camp sick room

Schreiber (German): male prisoner functionary, scribe

Schreiberin (German): female prisoner functionary, scribe

Schutzbrief, Schutzpass (German): protective documents that were issued by the diplomatic corps of the neutral states for thousands of Hungarian Jews

Shomer/Hashomer Hatzair (Hebrew): left-wing Zionist youth organisation

Sonderlager (German): special camp

SS (German): Schutzstaffel (protective troops), elite armed organisation of the German Nazi party which-among other functions-also guarded the concentration camps

SS-Aufseherin (German): SS female overseer

Székely (Hungarian): Transylvanian Hungarian

Szochnut (Hebrew): Hebrew name for the Jewish Agency

Tattersaal (German): covered riding hall in Budapest, which served as a collection point of the Jews before deportation in the winter of 1944

Tisha Be-av (Hebrew): Jewish day of fasting, the day of mourning remembering the destruction of the Jerusalem temple

Transportführer (German): transport leader

Vitéz (Hungarian): right-wing Hungarian social organisation established by Regent Miklós Horthy gathering veterans of WWI, the members of which gained different benefits

Volksbund (German): pro-Nazi organisation of Hungarian citizens of German ethnicity in Hungary between 1938 and 1945

Volksturm (German): German paramilitary organisation, civil militia

Yom/Jom Kippur (Hebrew): Jewish holiday, the Day of Atonement

Zulag (German): all camp food that was put on bread (sausage, jam, etc.)

Zählappell (German): camp roll call

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